The 'ough' ending of the word 'through' is not a phonetic, meaning its pronunciation can't be predicted based on it's spelling. No other word in English ends in 'ough' and the 'oo sound' /u/.
The 'ew' ending is much more predictable, however. Words ending in 'ew' often end in either the 'oo sound' /u/ or the 'long u' /yu/. The 'long u' /yu/ pronunciation is more likely if the sound before the spelling is /m/, /k/, /f/, /b/, /v/, or /h/. See all the 'long u' /yu/ spellings and 'oo sound' spellings in the lessons for those sounds.
Other words ending in 'ew' and pronounced with 'oo sound' /u/ include:
- new/knew (in American English)