Minimal pairs are two words that have the same pronunciation except for one sound. Practicing minimal pairs is helpful when similar sounds are too similar for a non-native English speaker to pronounce correctly.

Vowels: Choose two vowel sounds to compare

long a

long e, long i, long o, long u, short a, short e, short i, short o, short u, other u, oo sound, aw sound, ow sound, oi sound

long e

long i, long o, long u, short a, short e, short i, short o, short u, other u, oo sound, aw sound, ow sound, oi sound

long i

long o, long u, short a, short e, short i, short o, short u, other u, oo sound, aw sound, ow sound, oi sound

long o

long u, short a, short e, short i, short o, short u, other u, oo sound, aw sound, ow sound, oi sound

long u

short a, short e, short i, short o, short u, other u, oo sound, aw sound, ow sound, oi sound

short a

short e, short i, short o, short u, other u, oo sound, aw sound, ow sound, oi sound

short e

short i, short o, short u, other u, oo sound, aw sound, ow sound, oi sound

short i

short o, short u, other u, oo sound, aw sound, ow sound, oi sound

short o

short u, other u, oo sound, aw sound, ow sound, oi sound

short u

other u, oo sound, aw sound, ow sound, oi sound

other u

oo sound, aw sound, ow sound, oi sound

oo sound

aw sound, ow sound, oi sound

aw sound

ow sound, oi sound

ow sound

oi sound